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 Sa  Liu, Ph.D.

Sa Liu, Ph.D. Instructor of Interactive Media Studies

Dr. Sa Liu is an Assistant Professor in the Interactive Media program at Harrisburg University of Science and Technology. She received her Ph.D. in Learning Technologies at the University of Texas at Austin in the summer of 2018. She is currently a member of an editorial review board for the Journal of Online Learning Research and the International Journal on E-Learning. She is a big fan of various indoor and outdoor games, including but not limiting to board games, video games, snow skiing, fishing and hiking.

Teaching & Research Interests:

Dr.Liu teaches Information Design and Data Visualization, Unreal and Unity Game Engines, Front-end Web Design and Development, and Mobile Experience Design and Development at HU. Her research interests include educational uses of interactive media, serious games, learning analytics and interactive media design and development.

SpacEscape

SpacEscape is a problem-solving mobile game created by students and faculty at Harrisburg University of Science and Technology. The game provides middle school students an opportunity to learn about space science while practicing their problem-solving skills.

Awards and Honors

2022Outstanding Paper Award, SITE 2022, San Diego, CA.
2022Mentor App Dev Grant, Summer Search & NS2; $25,000.
2021Presidential Research Grant, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology.
Co-Principal Investigator: A Holistic Approach to Understanding Esports Player Ability; $20,000.
2019Presidential Research Grant, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology.
Principal Investigator: Phase II of The Impact of Learner Characteristics on
Problem-solving Using a Mobile Serious Game; $20,000.
2019Presidential Research Grant, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology.
Co-Investigator: Phase II of Millennials and the Visual Qualified Self:
Investigating mobile photography memory management and social media
practices of youth; $20,000.
20192019 CompEd Travel Grant, National Science Foundation (NSF); $1,000.
20182018 SIGCSE Travel Grant Program, The ACM SIGCSE Board; $825.
2018Presidential Research Grant, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology.
Principal Investigator: The Impact of Learner Characteristics on
Problem-solving Using a Mobile Serious Game; $18,420.
2018Presidential Research Grant, Harrisburg University of Science and Technology.
Co-Investigator: Millennials and the Visual Qualified Self: Investigating mobile photography memory management and social media practices of youth; $17,500.
2018Professional Development Travel Grant, University of Texas at Austin.
2017RAISE Excellence Award, Asian/Asian American
Faculty and Staff Association (AAAFSA), University of Texas at Austin.
2017Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing Student Scholarship,
Anita Borg Institute, Palo Alto; Value of $1,800.
2017Graduate Student Seminar Travel Stipend, AERA Division C.
2017Virginia C. Patterson Endowed Graduate Scholarship, UT-Austin
2013-2016Faculty/Student Research Collaborative Award, $2,330, University of Texas at Austin.
2016Advanced Student Employee Excellence Certification, University of Texas at Austin.
2016Outstanding Paper Award, EdMedia 2016, Vancouver, Canada.
2016Best Paper Award, AERA 2016, Washington, DC.
2016Continuing Fellowship, University of Texas at Austin, $24,000.  
2015Whitehall Travel Fund, Whitehall Co-op, Austin, Texas.
2015NASCO Scholarship, North American Students of Cooperation, U.S.
2014Student Employee Excellence Award, University of Texas at Austin.
2012Department Recruitment Fellowship, University of Texas, Austin , $22,000
2011Joint Schools Research Program Grant, Hong Kong Yuen Yuen Institute. A highly selective graduate student research grant; ¥5,000.           
2009-2011Excellent Study Fellowship, Graduate School of Education, Peking University ¥30, 000.

Education

Ph.D. in Learning Technologies., The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

B.S. in Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Publications

Harron, J. & Liu, S. (2022). Tweeting about teachers and COVID-19: An emotion and sentiment analysis approach. In E. Langran (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1502-1511). San Diego, CA, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).  https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/220936/

Grey, B., Liu, S., & Hastings, P. (2021, October). Teaching Space Science to Middle School Students using Serious Games in a Post-COVID World. In SITE Interactive Conference (pp. 306-311). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Liu, S. & Harron, J. R. (2021). What Twitter tells us about the pandemic and online education. In C. Cheong, J. Coldwell-Neilson, K. MacCallum, T. Luo, & A. Scime (Eds.), COVID-19 and Education: Learning and Teaching in a Pandemic-Constrained Environment, (pp. 481-497). Informing Science Institute (ISI). https://www.google.com/books/edition/COVID_19_and_Education/2IAwEAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PA481

Harron, J. & Liu, S. (2020). Coronavirus and online learning: A case study of influential K-12 teacher voices on Twitter. In E. Langran (Ed.), Proceedings of SITE Interactive 2020 Online Conference (pp. 719-724). Online: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/218229/

Liu, S., & Liu, M. (2020). The impact of learner metacognition and goal orientation on problem-solving in a serious game environment. Computers in Human Behavior102, 151-165.

Liu, S., & Liu, M. (2020). Data on Player Activity and Characteristics in a Serious Game Environment. Data in Brief, 28, 104965.

Liu, M., Liu, S., Pan, Z., Zou, W., & Li, C. (2019). Examining Science Learning and Attitude by At-Risk Students After They Used a Multimedia-Enriched Problem-Based Learning Environment. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 13(1). doi: https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1752

Peyton, T., Prasad, A., Liu, S., & Pena, J. (2019, February). Teaching Human-Centered Design in CSE Programs. In Proceedings of the 50th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (pp. 1246-1247). ACM.

Liu, S. & Liu, M. (2018). Using Log Data and Similarity Measure in Analyzing Learner Problem-solving Behaviors in a Serious Game: An Exploratory Study. In E. Langran & J. Borup (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 434-437). Washington, D.C., United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 2, 2018 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/182562/.

Liu, S., Liu, X., Shangguan, R., Lim, M., & Keating, X. D. (2018). When Physical Education Meets Technology: Responding to Technological Needs of Teaching Physical Education in the US. The ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 10(1), 50-58.

Kang, J., Liu, S., & Liu, M. (2017). Tracking students’ activities in serious games. In FQ. Lai & J. Lehman (Eds.), Learning and knowledge analytics in Open Education (pp. 125-137). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Liu, M., Kang, J., Liu, S., Zou, W., & Hodson, J. (2017). Learning analytics as an assessment tool in serious games: A review of literature. In M. Ma & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), Serious games and edutainment Applications (pp. 537-563). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Willis, J., Greenhalgh, S., Nadolny, L., Liu, S., Aldemir, T., Rogers, S., Trevathan, M., Hopper, S. & Oliver, W. (2017). Exploring the rules of the game: Games in the classroom, game-based learning, gamification, and simulations. In P. Resta & S. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2017 (pp. 342-347). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Liu, M., McKelroy, E., Kang, J., Harron, J., & Liu, S. (2016). Examining the use of Facebook and Twitter as an additional social space in a MOOC. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(1), 14-26. doi: 10.1080/08923647.2016.1120584

Hughes, J. E., Liu, S., & Lim, M. (2016). Technological modeling: Faculty use of technologies in preservice teacher education from 2004 to 2012. Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education, 16(2), 184-207.

Liu, M., Lee, J., Kang, J., & Liu, S. (2016). What we can learn from the data: a multiple-case study examining behavior patterns by students with different characteristics in using a serious game. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 21(1), 33-57. doi: 10.1007/s10758-015-9263-7

Liu, M., Su, S., Liu, S., Harron, J., Fickert, C., & Sherman, B. (2016). Exploring 3D immersive and interactive technology for designing educational learning experiences. In F. Neto (Ed.), Handbook of research on 3-D virtual environments and hypermedia for ubiquitous learning (pp. 243-261). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Liu, S., Zou, W. & Liu, M. (2016). Study the effect of goal setting scaffolding tool for problem solving–In a problem based learning game environment. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2016 (pp. 542-545). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Liu, M., Kang, J., Lee, J, Winzeler, E., & Liu, S. (2015). Examining through visualization what tools learners access as they play a serious game for middle school science. In C. S. Loh, Y. Sheng, & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.) Serious games analytics. (pp. 181-208). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Hughes, J. E., Ko, Y., Lim, M., & Liu, S. (2015). Preservice teachers’ social networking use, concerns, and educational possibilities: Trends from 2008–2012. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23(2), 185-212.

Liu, M., Abe, K., Cao, M., Liu, S., Ok, D. U., Park, J. B., … & Sardegna, V. G. (2015). An analysis of social network websites for language learning: Implications for teaching and learning English as a Second Language. CALICO Journal, 32(1), 114-152.

Liu, M., Horton, L., Lee, J., Kang, J., Liu, S., Myers, R. & Maxwell, A. (2015). Designing a new media enhanced learning environment: Our development model. In S. Carliner, C. Fulford & N. Ostashewski (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology 2015 (pp. 162-172). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Feng, F., Liu, S., Wang, Y., Tong, X., & Wang, Q., (2012). Next generation learning (vision, innovation and possibility): Reports about the 7th e-Learning Forum Asia 2012. Journal of Distance Education, 4, 3-19.

PRESENTATIONS AND INVITED TALKS

Liu, X., Liu, J, Phelps, A., & Liu, S. (2022, July). Technology in Teaching K-12 Physical Education. Panel discussion at 2022 International Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Dance and Sport (IAHPEDS) World Congress at San Antonio, TX, USA.

Harron, J., Liu, S. (2022, April). Tweeting about Teachers and COVID-19: An Emotion and Sentiment Analysis Approach. SITE, San Diego, CA. Outstanding Paper Award.

Liu, S & Liu, M. (2021, April) Examining Learner Metacognition and Goal Orientation While Problem-solving in a Serious Game Environment, Paper presented at AERA 2021 Virtual Conference.

Harron, J., Liu, S. (2020, October). Coronavirus and Online Learning: A Case Study of Influential K-12 Teacher Voices on Twitter. SITE Interactive Online 2020 Conference.

Liu, M., Liu, S., Pan, Z., Zhou, W., & Li, C. (2019, November). Can Using A Multimedia-Enriched Problem- Based Learning Environment Improve At-Risk Students’ Attitude?. World Conference on E-learning 2019, New Orleans, LA.

Liu, M., Liu, S., Zhou, W., Pan, Z. (2018, October). Promoting Self-Efficacy and Science Learning For All Middle School Students Using A Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Environment. AECT 2018, Kansas City, MO.

Liu, S., & Amarasinghe, I. (2018, October). Visualize Learner Behavior in Serious Game Using Gameplay Log Data: A Case Study Based on Learner Characteristics. AECT 2018, Kansas City, MO.

Liu, S., & Harron, J. (2018, April). Building a Web Virtual Reality App Using A-Frame and Glitch. EdTech Conference 2018, San Marcos, TX.

Liu, S., Liu, X., Shangguan, R, L., Lim, M, & Keating, X. (2018, March). When Physical Education Meet Technology: Responding to Technological Needs of Teaching Physical Education. SITE, Washington, DC.

Liu, S., & Liu, M. (2018, March). Using Log Data and Similarity Measure in Analyzing Learner Problem-solving Behaviors in a Serious Game: An Exploratory Study. SITE, Washington, DC.

Colburn, J., Liu, X., Shangguan, R., Kim, M., Liu, S, & Keating, X. D. (2017, March). Critical Issues Related to Current Professional Development in Physical Education. Round-table presented at the ICHPER-SD Forum in conjunction with the annual SHAPE America Convention, Boston, MA.

Shangguan, R., Keating, X. D., Fan, Y., Gao, X., Sheehan, C., Nguyen, J., & Liu, S. (2017, March). A longitudinal study on academic achievement, aerobic fitness and body mass index. Paper presented at the ICHPER-SD Forum in conjunction with the annual SHAPE America Convention, Boston, MA.

Liu, S (2017, March). Designing a Goal Setting Scaffolding Tool for Problem Solving — In a problem-based learning serious game environment. Poster presented at the SITE 2017, Austin, TX.

Willis, J., Greenhalgh, S., Nadolny, L., Liu, S., Aldemir, T., Rogers, S., Trevathan, M., Hopper, S. & Oliver, W. (2017, March). Exploring the Rules of the Game: Games in the Classroom, Game-Based Learning, Gamification, and Simulations. Panelist presented at SITE 2017, Austin, TX.

Liu, M., Kang, J., Liu, S., Zou, W. & Hodson, J. (2016, October). Learning Analytics as an Assessment Tool in Serious Games: A Review of Literature. Paper presented at E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, Washington, DC.

Horton, L., Liu, M., Liu, S., Kang, J., Hodson, J., & Zou, W. (2016, June). A Multimedia Enriched Problem-Based Learning Environment: Our Research and Development Experiences. Outstanding Paper Award at World Conference on Educational Media and Technology. EdMedia 2016, Vancouver, Canada.

Liu, M., Lee, J., Kang, J., & Liu, S. (2016, April) Multiple-Case Study Examining Behavior Patterns by Students with Different Characteristics in a Serious Game., Best Paper Award at AERA 2016, Washington, DC.

Liu, M., Kang, J., McKelroy, E., Harron, J., & Liu, S. (2016, April) Investigating Students’ Interactions with Discussion Forums, Facebook, and Twitter in a Massive Open Online Course and Their Perceptions, Paper presented at AERA 2016, Washington, DC.

Harron, J., & Liu, S. (2016, February) Unleash the power of mobile devices with immersive educational VR. Presentation at the annual convention of the Texas Computer Education Association, Austin, TX.

Harron, J., Liu, M., Liu, S., & Myers, R. (2016, February) Alien Rescue: An immersive 3D game-based approach for teaching middle school science. Academy Breakout Session at the annual convention of the Texas Computer Education Association, Austin, TX.

Kang, J., Liu, S., Liu, M. (2015, June) Tracking Students’ Activities in Serious Games. Paper presented at AECT-LKAOE 2015 Summer International Research Symposium, Shanghai, China.

Liu, M., McKelroy, E., Kang, J., Harron, J., & Liu, S. (2015, November) Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an additional social space in a MOOC. Paper presented at the AECT 2015, Indianapolis, IN.

Liu, M., Kang, J., Lee, J, Winzeler, E., & Liu, S. (2015, April). Exploring How Learners Use a Serious Game for Middle School Science Through Visualization. Paper presented at the AERA 2015, Chicago, IL.

Hughes, J. E., Liu, S., & Lim, M. (2015, March) Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives of Their Faculty’s Web 2.0 Use: Trends from 2008 to 2012. Paper presented at the SITE 2015, Las Vegas, NV.

Liu, S. Wu X. (2014, May). Examining k-12 teachers’ practical knowledge of technology integration: Based on Interactive Whiteboard technology. Paper presented at Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education (GCCCE) 2014, Shanghai, China.

Liu, S. (2014, March). Examining the possibility of using social network services in teaching and learning. Round-table presented at CRTE 7th Annual Teacher Education Symposium. Austin, TX.

Hughes, J., Ko, Y., Lim, M., Liu, S. (2014, March) Preservice Teachers’ Social Networking Use, Concerns, and Educational Possibilities: Trends from 2008-2012. Paper presented at the SITE 2014, Jacksonville, FL.

Liu, M., Parrish, C., Park, J. B., Abe*, K., Cao, M., Liu, S. & Ok, D. U.. (2013, May). An Analysis of Social Networking Language Learning Websites: Implications for ESL Teaching and Learning. Paper presented at the annual conference by Computer-Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO), Honolulu, HI. (*Fourth through seventh authors are listed in an alphabetical order.)

Liu, S. (2013, March). Examing K-12 Teachers’ Practical Knowledge of Technology Based on Interactive Whiteboard Technology. Paper presented at CRTE 6th Annual Teacher Education Symposium. Austin, TX.

K, Abe., Cao. M., Liu, S. & Parrish, C., Ok, D. U., Park. J. B., Liu, M., (2013, February) Examining Four Language Learning Social Networking Websites Through a Usability Testing. Symposium presented at TexFLEC 2013. Austin, TX.

Park. J. B., Parrish, C., Ok, D. U, Liu, S, K, Abe., Cao, M., Liu, M., (2013, February). Examining Social Networking Websites from a Language Teaching Perspective. Paper presented at TexFLEC 2013. Austin, TX.

Liu, S. & Wu, X. (2012, May) Exploring the Impact Factors of Teaching with Interactive Whiteboard in Class: Results from a SEM Study of K-12 Schools in China. Paper presented at Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education 2012. Taiwan.

Liu, S. (2011, November). Not Only a Game—A Teaching Case Design of Motor Skill Using KINECT Education Game. Paper presentation at the International Conference on Digital Game-based Learning 2011, Beijing, China.

Liu, S. (2011, March). Using a New Training Model to Improve Teacher’s Teaching Ability in China: A Case Study. Paper presented at the meeting of Education Without Borders (EWB) 2011, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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